دفتر طب ایرانی
ساعت: تاریخ: دوشنبه ٠٥ اسفند ١٣٩٨
آخرین اخبار
مقالات چاپ شده

 

The History of Melancholia Disease.
Related Articles

The History of Melancholia Disease.

Iran J Med Sci. 2016 May;41(3 Suppl):S75

Authors: Sadeghfard A, Bozorgi AR, Ahmadi S, Shojaei M

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Melancholia is a kind of depression with the most common symptoms of evident mental disorder, slimness, lack of enjoyment, feeling guilty and having no appetite. In modern medicine, the word "melancholia" only refers to mental and affective symptoms of depression. However, historically, it could have physical symptoms as well as mental symptoms and the atrabilious situations were categorized according to their common reasons rather than their specific characteristics. This study aimed to enlighten the history of this disease.
METHODS: This is a review article concerned with cerebral diseases by collecting data from medical electronic databases including PUBMED and SID, historical psychiatry books and traditional medicine manuscripts.
RESULTS: The first known physician to have scientifically looked at the mental diseases was Hippocrates (370-460 B.C), who should be accredited as the father of medicine. While physicians in the time of Hippocrates seriously believed in the metaphysics power in health and diseases, Hippocrates believed in natural laws. Plato (348-428 B.C) believed that human behavior is affected by his physical needs and instincts. In the course of Hippocrates's theory about bodily humors, Aristotle considered a range of mental characteristics for each. Finally, Galen believed that cerebral disease causes mental diseases or disorders based on his own theories of anatomy. Persian physicians involved in this area were Rabban al-Tabari (838-870 A.D), Razes (865-925 A.D), Ali-Ibn Abbas Ahvazi (944-982 A.D), Al-ikhwan al bukhari the physician of the ninth century, Ibn Sina (980-1037 A.D), Gorgani (1040-1136 A.D) and Khaje Nasireddin Tousi (1201-1274 A.D). They considered cerebral diseases and health as a part of equality process; different organs accommodate a physical system and mutual dependence with the society and environment.
CONCLUSION: Mental health has been reviewed from various aspects in view of ancient physicians. Feeble mindedness and behavioral disorder complications had already been addressed in earlier times too.

PMID: 27840541 [PubMed - in process]

]]> Sadeghfard A, Bozorgi AR, Ahmadi S, Shojaei M Iran J Med Sci PubMed:27840541 The Role of Nutrition in the Prevention and Treatment of Cancer in Traditional Persian Medicine.

Related Articles

The Role of Nutrition in the Prevention and Treatment of Cancer in Traditional Persian Medicine.

Iran J Med Sci. 2016 May;41(3 Suppl):S73

Authors: Jazani AM, Azgomi RN, Mohammadi G

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Cancer is the most important non-communicable disease and the chief cause of death in the world, which imposes a major burden on communities. It is expected that the number of new cancer cases will increase 70 percent worldwide in the next two decades. The exact cause of the disease is unclear in modern medicine. More than a third of all cancer cases are preventable and the other two third are treatable if detected early. Cancer is a type of swelling in traditional Persian medicine (TPM). The aim of this study was to investigate the role of nutrition in the prevention and treatment of cancer in TPM.
METHODS: This study is a review-descriptive that was conducted based on traditional medicine books, including Al Canon fil tibb, Al-Hawi, Zakhireh-ye Khwarazm shahi and Exir-e-Aazam.
RESULTS: From the viewpoint of TPM, swelling is any abnormal accumulation of material in organs that will make bulging and dysfunction. If the substance of the disease can be fully matured and eliminated in the early stages of swelling and the patients become stronger, the possibility of swelling creation with poor prognosis such as cancer will decrease. Cancer is a cold and melancholic (soda) swelling that can be created by burning of humors. Treatment of cancer is based on specific nutrition management and medicinal herbs. According to the study, eating moderate to moisture temperament foods that can decrease acuity of melancholy humor (soda), produce appropriate blood (e.g. lamb, goat, egg yolks) and avoiding foods producing melancholy humor are recommended.
CONCLUSION: Swelling is a compound disease and cancer is a melancholic swelling. According to TPM, treating swelling in the early stages is possible and by observing the principles of nutrition, eating and drinking rules, and proper and early treatment of hot swelling and turning hot swelling into cold, cancer can be prevented.

PMID: 27840539 [PubMed - in process]

]]>
Jazani AM, Azgomi RN, Mohammadi G Iran J Med Sci PubMed:27840539
The Comparison of Genetic Factors Influences on Physical Activity and Health between Classical Medicine and Iranian Traditional Medicine. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27840527?dopt=Abstract Related Articles

The Comparison of Genetic Factors Influences on Physical Activity and Health between Classical Medicine and Iranian Traditional Medicine.

Iran J Med Sci. 2016 May;41(3 Suppl):S61

Authors: Setooni M, Razeghi M, Jaladat AM, Soleimani A

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Different factors, especially genetic, effect individual attitude to regular physical activity in Iranian traditional medicine. It was believed that individual physical activity attitude is affected by Mizaj too. Our aim was to conduct a comparative revision and evaluation of the effect of genetic factors on physical activity in classic medicine and Iranian traditional medicine.
METHODS: In this study, we reviewed Persian resources in the research center of traditional medicine at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. We also evaluated the texts on physical activity and genetics in PubMed and Google Scholar.
RESULTS: The results of classical medicine revision showed the effect of especial genes on obesity and sedentary behavior. It is also derived from Iranian traditional medicine resources that physical activity and sedentary behavior is affected by individual Mizaj.
CONCLUSION: The results showed that those with hot and cold Mizaj have different genetic potentials in sedentary behavior and physical activity. Such categorization would be helpful in identifying illnesses due to sedentary life in special groups of people. It would also allow designing dedicated treatment for each person.

PMID: 27840527 [PubMed - in process]

]]>
Setooni M, Razeghi M, Jaladat AM, Soleimani A Iran J Med Sci PubMed:27840527
Stroke in Canon of Medicine. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27840525?dopt=Abstract Related Articles

Stroke in Canon of Medicine.

Iran J Med Sci. 2016 May;41(3 Suppl):S59

Authors: Alorizi SM, Nimruzi M

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Stroke has a huge negative impact on the society and more adversely affect women. There is scarce evidence about any neuroprotective effects of commonly used drug in acute stroke. Bushnell et al. provided a guideline focusing on the risk factors of stroke unique to women, including reproductive factors, metabolic syndrome, obesity, atrial fibrillation, and migraine with aura. The ten variables cited by Avicenna in Canon of Medicine would compensate for the gaps mentioned in this guideline. The prescribed drugs should be selected qualitatively opposite to Mizaj (warm-cold and wet-dry qualities induced by disease state) of the disease and according to ten variables, including the nature of the affected organ, intensity of disease, sex, age, habit, season, place of living, occupation, stamina and physical status.
METHODS: Information related to stroke was searched in Canon of Medicine, which is an outstanding book in traditional Persian medicine written by Avicenna.
RESULTS: A hemorrhagic stroke is the result of increasing sanguine humor in the body. Sanguine has warm-wet quality, and should be treated with food and drugs that quench the abundance of blood in the body. An acute episode of ischemic stroke is due to the abundance of phlegm that causes a blockage in the cerebral vessels. Phlegm has cold-wet quality and treatment should be started with compound medicines that either solve the phlegm or eject it from the body.
CONCLUSION: Avicenna has cited in Canon of Medicine that women have cold and wet temperament compared to men. For this reason, they are more prone to accumulation of phlegm in their body organs including the liver, joints and vessels, and consequently in the risk of fatty liver, degenerative joint disease, atherosclerosis, and stroke especially the ischemic one. This is in accordance with epidemiological studies that showed higher rate of ischemic stroke in women rather than hemorrhagic one.

PMID: 27840525 [PubMed - in process]

]]>
Alorizi SM, Nimruzi M Iran J Med Sci PubMed:27840525
Range of Motion Improvement in Ankylosing Spondylitis Patient with Persian Traditional Medicine; Case Report. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27840521?dopt=Abstract Related Articles

Range of Motion Improvement in Ankylosing Spondylitis Patient with Persian Traditional Medicine; Case Report.

Iran J Med Sci. 2016 May;41(3 Suppl):S55

Authors: Gorji N, Moeini R

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the skeletal system without definitive treatment. Nowadays, the aim of therapeutic interventions is preventing disease progression, but eventually many patients have different degrees of decreased range of motion, especially in the spine accompanied by pain and fatigue.
METHODS: A 44-year-old man with AS from 22 years ago was treated with NSAIDs and sulfasalazine. He visited for developed pain and stiffness in spine from 7 years ago. He did not confer with the rheumatologist from 2012 due to the lack of treatment satisfaction and maintained his treatment with 75 mg indomethacin daily. The patient was assessed in the Iranian traditional medicine clinic and other problems were chronic fatigue, interrupted sleep, and extreme dry skin. Diagnosis was general dryness and treatment started with oral and tropical moisture and nutritional advice.
RESULTS: In the third month of treatment, joint pain, morning stiffness and sleep disturbance improved. After 8 months, in addition to complete improvement of skin dryness, sleep disturbance and joint pain, range of motion in cervical and lumbar spine were increased. In cervical rotation, distance from the chin to acromion decreased from 24 to 15 cm in right rotation and 20 to 13 cm in left rotation. Additionally, in cervical flexion distance from the chin to sternal notch decreased from 16 to 8 cm after treatment. In the lumbar spine, an increased Schober's index was seen.
CONCLUSION: The use of Persian traditional medicine's viewpoints and treatment strategies can be effective in improving Ankylosing spondylitis prognosis and proposed for future clinical research.

PMID: 27840521 [PubMed - in process]

]]>
Gorji N, Moeini R Iran J Med Sci PubMed:27840521
Pruritus Treatment in Viewpoints of Traditional Persian Medicine. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27840519?dopt=Abstract Related Articles

Pruritus Treatment in Viewpoints of Traditional Persian Medicine.

Iran J Med Sci. 2016 May;41(3 Suppl):S53

Authors: Jazani AM, Azgomi RN, Shirbeigi L

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Pruritus is an unpleasant feeling that can cause the desire of scratching in a person and can be the symptoms of systemic, infectious, and neurological diseases. Pruritus is the most common clinical manifestation of skin diseases. Pruritus prevalence is 8-38% in the general population. Causes and treatments of pruritus have been described by traditional Persian medicine scientists. The aim of this study was to derive general principles of the proposed treatment to reduce or relieve pruritus.
METHODS: This descriptive study, review traditional medicine books including Al canon fil tibb, Al-Hawi, Makhzan ul-adviyyah, Al-Abniyah an-Haghyegh el-adviyah, Tuhfat ul-Momineen and Exir-e-Azam. The above-mentioned documents were derived and classified by keywords such as pruritus, hakka, jarab and sherry.
RESULTS: In traditional Persian medicine, there are different causes for pruritus such as accumulation of vapors or acute humors in subcutaneous tissue or weakness of expulsive (Dafi'a) faculty and its treatment is based on removing the causes. Proper nutrition, bathing, and removing pathogenic humors are involved in the treatment. According to this study, some plants such as Cassia fistula, Purslane, Violets, Fumaria, Barley, Coriander, Rose and Terminalia chebula are anti-itching.
CONCLUSION: Proper nutrition is the most important point in health and treatment of humors production with appropriate quality and quantity. Pruritus can be treated by lifestyle modification and using medicinal plants. It could be concluded that traditional Persian medicine therapies can be effective in the treatment of pruritus with mild side effects. By further investigation and research, we can reach more effective treatment methods in the field of traditional Persian medicine along with other new medical therapies.

PMID: 27840519 [PubMed - in process]

]]>
Jazani AM, Azgomi RN, Shirbeigi L Iran J Med Sci PubMed:27840519
Properties Related to Bile as Viewed in Makhzan ol-Adviya. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27840516?dopt=Abstract Related Articles

Properties Related to Bile as Viewed in Makhzan ol-Adviya.

Iran J Med Sci. 2016 May;41(3 Suppl):S50

Authors: Mosaffa-Jahromi M

Abstract
BACKGROUND: The human body has simple and compound organs that obtain their nourishment through four humors. One of them is bile (yellow bile). According to Iranian traditional medicine (ITM), there are various kinds of natural medicines with their specific mechanisms of action affecting on bile in the human body. Hakim Aghili Shirazi (18th century), one of the great scholars in ITM field, introduced all types of natural medicines influencing bile in his valuable book written in Persian, "Makhzan-ul-Adwiah", about single herbal medicines (mofradat). The aim of this review article was to introduce all types of natural medicines influencing bile in the human body.
METHODS: The classification of natural medicines influencing bile was studied in this article as viewed by Hakim Aghili Shirazi in Makhzan-ul-Adwiah.
RESULTS: Reviewing Makhzan-ul-Adwiah, this natural influencing bile is defined in ten categories. These are Haabes-e Safra (obstructive of bile), Daafe-e Safra (expellant of bile), Raafe-e Safra (resolver of bile), Ghaate-e Safra (stopper of bile), Ghaame-e Safra (suppressant of bile), Kaasere-e Safra (fractionating of bile), Mohregh-e Safra (burner of bile), Moder-e Safra (bile diuretic), Mosaken-e Safra (bile reliever), and Mos'hel-e Safra (bile laxative).
CONCLUSION: Each group has a specific function and mechanism on bile. Recognition of the precise mechanisms of these natural medicines is necessary to prescribe a suitable remedy for bilious diseases by traditional medicine specialists.

PMID: 27840516 [PubMed - in process]

]]>
Mosaffa-Jahromi M Iran J Med Sci PubMed:27840516
Porosity and Health: Perspective of Traditional Persian Medicine. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27840513?dopt=Abstract Related Articles

Porosity and Health: Perspective of Traditional Persian Medicine.

Iran J Med Sci. 2016 May;41(3 Suppl):S47

Authors: Tafazoli V, Nimrouzi M, Daneshfard B

Abstract
BACKGROUND: The authors of this manuscript aimed to show the importance of porosity and condensation in health according to traditional Persian medicine (TPM) with consideration of new evidence in conventional medicine.
METHODS: Cardinal traditional medical and pharmacological texts were searched for the traditional terms of takhalkhol (porosity) and takassof (condensity) focused on preventive methods. The findings were classified and compared with new medical findings.
RESULTS: According to traditional Persian medicine, porosity and condensity are the two crucial items that contribute to human health. Somatotype is a taxonomy based on embryonic development, which may be considered in parallel with porosity and condensation. However, these terms are not completely the same. There are many causes for acquired porosity comprising hot weather, too much intercourse, rage, starvation, and heavy exercises. In general, porosity increases the risk of diseases as it makes the body organs vulnerable to external hot and cold weather. On the other hand, the porose organs are more susceptible to accumulation of morbid matters because the cellular wastes cannot be evacuated in the normal way. There are some common points between traditional and conventional medicine in the context of porosity and condensity. The relation between diet and somatotype is an example.
CONCLUSION: Condensity and porosity are the two basic items cited in the TPM resources and contribute to health maintenance and disease prevention of body organs. Creating a balance between these two states in different body organs, strongly contributes to disease prevention, treatment and diminishing chronic diseases period. Choosing proper modality including diet, drug therapy, and manual therapy depends on the amount porosity and stiffness of the considered organ and the preferred porosity of the affected organ keeping in a normal healthy state.

PMID: 27840513 [PubMed - in process]

]]>
Tafazoli V, Nimrouzi M, Daneshfard B Iran J Med Sci PubMed:27840513
Non-Pharmacological Treatments of Allergic Rhinitis (Neglected Treatments). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27840512?dopt=Abstract Related Articles

Non-Pharmacological Treatments of Allergic Rhinitis (Neglected Treatments).

Iran J Med Sci. 2016 May;41(3 Suppl):S46

Authors: Zohalinezhad ME, Zarshenas MM

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Allergic rhinitis is the most common diseases affecting people in industrialized society. However, this is not a new disease and it was clinically described and treated for the first time by Rhazes (865-925 CE). The disease was also mentioned in "The Canon of Medicine" by Avicenna (980-1037).
METHODS: We searched in Scopus, Web of Science, and PubMed for "allergic rhinitis", "interactions", "non-prescription", "prescription", and in electronic copies of ITM sources the "canon" and "Al-Havi".
RESULTS: Both Persian pioneers of Medicine recommended non-pharmacologic management as an important phase of the therapy. Their recommendations consisted of avoiding overeating and polydipsia, massage of the lower extremities, adjusting the duration and time of sleep, sleeping in the supine position, avoiding exposure of the head to cold air and taking a shower early in the morning.
CONCLUSION: Although some aspects of their recommendations, such as massage of the lower extremities, avoiding of overeating and adjusting of sleep pattern were approved, but further cross-sectional and prospective studies are needed to confirm other non-pharmacological treatments.

PMID: 27840512 [PubMed - in process]

]]>
Zohalinezhad ME, Zarshenas MM Iran J Med Sci PubMed:27840512
Medical Mucilage Used in Traditional Persian Medicine Practice. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27840507?dopt=Abstract Related Articles

Medical Mucilage Used in Traditional Persian Medicine Practice.

Iran J Med Sci. 2016 May;41(3 Suppl):S41

Authors: Heydarirad G, Choopani R, Mehdi P, Jafari JM

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Mucilage compounds are pharmaceutically important polysaccharides that have an extensive range of applications, including binding agents, thickeners, water retention agents, emulsion stabilizers, suspending agents, disintegrates, film formers, and gelling agents. A historical approach to medical science written by Iranian scholars could help in identifying excellent ideas and provide valuable information in this field for proper application. The aim of the current study was to introduce some mucilage uses derived from traditional Persian medicine (TPM).
METHODS: In this literature review, we assessed a few main traditional manuscripts of Iranian medicine, including the books Al Havi, Canon of Medicine, Qarabadine-kabir, Zakhireh-ye Khwarazm shahi, Tuhfat ul-Momineen and Makhzan-ul-Adwiah. The word "loab" in the aforementioned books were searched and all data about mucilage compounds were collected.
RESULTS: The use of medicinal plants containing mucilage in Iran dates back to ancient times. In traditional Persian manuscripts, mucilage is one of the most cited applications of medicinal plants for therapeutic objectives. There are various mucilage-producing plants in TPM such as Malva silvestris, Linum usitissimum, Althaea officinalis, Plantago psyllium, Descureania sophia and Ziziphus vulgaris. They have been used traditionally via oral or topical routes for respiratory, gastrointestinal, urinary, musculoskeletal, and genital systems as well as skin disorders. Certain applications are unique and promising for today's chronic ailments.
CONCLUSION: A scientific assessment of these valuable manuscripts would provide a better insight into the thoughts of the past sages and applicable for clinical use of the mucilage compounds. This may lead to research opportunities in the future.

PMID: 27840507 [PubMed - in process]

]]>
Heydarirad G, Choopani R, Mehdi P, Jafari JM Iran J Med Sci PubMed:27840507
Gingivitis from the Viewpoint of Traditional Persian Medicine. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27840501?dopt=Abstract Related Articles

Gingivitis from the Viewpoint of Traditional Persian Medicine.

Iran J Med Sci. 2016 May;41(3 Suppl):S35

Authors: Sedigh-Rahimabadi M, Shams M, Fani M, Chijan MR

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Gingivitis is among the top general health problems in the world, especially in developing countries. Meanwhile, it may be associated with pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases. In a qualitative study, we tried to identify the corresponding terminology to gingivitis in traditional Persian medicine (TPM) and to explain its potential mechanisms, treatments, and prevention characteristics.
METHODS: In a literature review, 4 modern textbooks and 18 related articles, 2 traditional medical dictionaries and 12 traditional medical and 4 traditional pharmaceutical texts were assessed by a specific method. Initially, traditional scripts were searched for signs and symptoms of gingivitis as well as related keywords such as bleeding, swollen and loosen gum, oral or gingival ulcers, teeth, or gingival pain. Then the disease/s or disorder/s, which matched gingivitis in TPM, was appraised in details. Finally, potential mechanisms, prevention and therapeutic protocols presented by TPM were collated and summarized.
RESULTS: "Lasse-e-Dâmiyeh" (bleeding gum) or "Khoon-Reezi az Goosht-e Bon-e Dandân" (bleeding from under teeth flesh) was the main disease comparable to gingivitis. Based on TPM, the leading etiologies are insufficient gum feeding mechanism, pouring and gathering of excessive fluid in the gum and accumulation of excessive blood in it or in the whole body. Although there were remarkable similarities in the subjects of different TPM texts over the centuries, particularly in oral and teeth hygiene and overall approach to gingivitis, we faced notable differences in recipes (herbal drugs) that each text proposed.
CONCLUSION: While there are overlapping terminologies to gingivitis in TPM, "Lasse-e-Dâmiyeh" is the closest disease that relates to it. Meanwhile, adjusting diet and lifestyle, having appropriate oral hygiene, obtaining a vast variety of herbal medications, cupping, phlebotomy, leech therapy, etc. are the different TPM modalities for the prevention and treatment of gingivitis that can be considered as therapeutic and/or research issues.

PMID: 27840501 [PubMed - in process]

]]>
Sedigh-Rahimabadi M, Shams M, Fani M, Chijan MR Iran J Med Sci PubMed:27840501
Functional Food in Traditional Persian Medicine. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27840499?dopt=Abstract Related Articles

Functional Food in Traditional Persian Medicine.

Iran J Med Sci. 2016 May;41(3 Suppl):S33

Authors: Zare R, Hosseinkhani A

Abstract
BACKGROUND: During the last decades, there have been great advancements in the field of preventive medicine. Research has demonstrated that nutrition plays a crucial role in the prevention of chronic diseases. The concept of functional food was first introduced in Japan during the 1980s. It proposes to consider food not only vital to survive, but also a mean for mental and physical well-being, contributing to the prevention and reduction of risk factors for diseases. However, there is evidence that the concept was believed by ancient physicians as well. One of the traditional systems of medicines is traditional Persian medicine (TPM). Rhazes said; "as long as a disease could be treated with food, medicine should be avoided".
METHODS: We carried out a review of Avicenna's Canon of medicine and Rhazes books for the definition of food and drug and similar concepts of functional food. We listed the identified concepts along with their examples.
RESULTS: The classification of food and their therapeutic use were explained in Canon of medicine. Rhazes has a book called 'Manafe al-Aghziyeh', in which he writes about the medicinal benefits of different nutrition. Five concepts (food, drug, medicinal food, nutritional medicine and antidote or poison) were noted in these books.
CONCLUSION: There are many recommendations on food for the prevention and treatment of diseases in TPM books, which can be the basis for novel research studies.

PMID: 27840499 [PubMed - in process]

]]>
Zare R, Hosseinkhani A Iran J Med Sci PubMed:27840499
Chemical Compounds and Extraction Methods of "Maollahm". https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27840492?dopt=Abstract Related Articles

Chemical Compounds and Extraction Methods of "Maollahm".

Iran J Med Sci. 2016 May;41(3 Suppl):S26

Authors: Sadeghpoor O, Dayeni M, Razi S

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Maollahm or meat juice, a by-product of meat, is a traditional remedy in Persian medicine. This product was used as a nourishment or treatment substance for sick people. According to the ancient Persian medicine, animal meat has more affinity with the human body and the body easily absorbs its nutrition. Therefore, one could resort to maollahm for patients requiring urgent nourishment to boost and strengthen their body.
METHODS: In this work, different ways of preparing maollahm from poultry, goat, cow, and sheep meat are studied. Most of these methods are based on distillation or barbecue before distillation, as prescribed by traditional medicine books. The reactions, chemical processes, and volatile compounds related to different types of cooked meat are also compared with the outcome of recent research studies.
RESULTS: The difference between various types of meat is related to their compounds. Different cooking processes such as barbecuing, roasting, cooking, and boiling have an effect on the taste, smell and the chemical constituents of maollahm. Additionally, the type of meat, animal feed, as well as using or removing the fat during the cooking process, have an effect on the produced volatile compounds.
CONCLUSION: Cooking process and the type of meat have a direct effect on the compounds of maollahm. Possible reactions in the preparation process of maollahm are investigated and presented according to the new research studies.

PMID: 27840492 [PubMed - in process]

]]>
Sadeghpoor O, Dayeni M, Razi S Iran J Med Sci PubMed:27840492
Categorization of Cathartic (Purgative) Medicines Mentioned in TPM Resources According to Their Specific Function. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27840491?dopt=Abstract Related Articles

Categorization of Cathartic (Purgative) Medicines Mentioned in TPM Resources According to Their Specific Function.

Iran J Med Sci. 2016 May;41(3 Suppl):S25

Authors: Abolghasemi J

Abstract
BACKGROUND: According to traditional Persian medicine (TPM) resources, the human digestive system includes four steps. In the first step, gastric digestion, the ingested food pours into the stomach and changes into the leachate called chylous due to the heat produced in the stomach. In the second step, hepatic digestion, the chylous enters in the liver through mesenteric vessels and transforms into the quadruple humors, sanguine, phlegm, bile and black bile due to the liver heat. In the case of humor predominance, using moshel or cathartic medicines is considered as a strategic medical plan. In this study, we introduce cathartic (purgative) medicines mentioned in TPM resources according to their specific function.
METHODS: Literature review of TPM resources, including Canon of Medicine and Aghili's Makhzan-ul-Adwiah was performed in order to find cathartics cited in the aforementioned books, prescribed specifically for different humor's predominance in the body.
RESULTS: The survey found that the cathartics are categorized into eight groups: Cathartic of "balgham" such as "Citrullus colocynthis and Colchicum autumnale"Cathartic of bile such as "Prunus domestica and Alhagi Camelorum A. maurorum"Cathartic of "sovda" such as "lajward stone and Armenian stone"Cathartic of "Ma'a-e-asfar" such as "Marrubium vulgarre and Rivand extract"Cathartic of melancholy and phlegm such as "Cuscuta epithymum and Adiantum capillus venerisCathartic of bile and phlegm such as "Nepeta menthoides and Fumaria parviflora"Cathartic of "Ma'a-e-asfar and phlegm such as Urtica dioica and Qsa'alhmarCathartic of all mucus such as "Cassia acutifolia" and "kharbaghe Aswad".
CONCLUSION: Medical students of traditional Persian medicine should be familiar with cathartics and purgatives specific for each humor. In this study, cathartics has classified into main cathartics of phlegm, bile, black bile, Ma'a-e-asfar, black bile and phlegm, Ma'a-e-asfar and phlegm, as well as cathartic of all triple humors for a better memorization and feasibility of prescribing in practice.

PMID: 27840491 [PubMed - in process]

]]>
Abolghasemi J Iran J Med Sci PubMed:27840491
Caring for Newborn's Umbilical Cord from Iranian Traditional Medicine Point of View. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27840490?dopt=Abstract Related Articles

Caring for Newborn's Umbilical Cord from Iranian Traditional Medicine Point of View.

Iran J Med Sci. 2016 May;41(3 Suppl):S24

Authors: Mazdabadi NV, Razkenari EK, Saeedi M, Akbarzadeh T, Toushih M

Abstract
BACKGROUND: It is evident that infant's umbilical cord is essential for its survival and growth. In the past, it was not considered as a necessary tissue. However, nowadays, it has attracted lots of attention and its relation to different diseases has been demonstrated. In Iranian traditional medicine, caring for newborn's umbilical cord has been frequently recommended and it has been associated with different diseases.
METHODS: Herein, Iranian traditional medicine resources such as "Qanun-fil-Tibb", "Exir-e-Azam", and "Tib-e-Akbari" were studied. In addition, recent developments in classical medicine were reviewed using search engines including Google Scholar, PubMed, SID, and IranMedex.
RESULTS: It has been revealed that there is a direct relation between early cord clamping and oxidative stress, anemia, and low cardiac output. In Iranian traditional medicine, it is believed that the umbilical cord length, which should be cut off, is important. A short cord may lead to bladder contraction and frequent urination. Furthermore, if the umbilical cord is not squeezed efficiently, its content may enter the bladder, testis, and stomach leading to various diseases.
CONCLUSION: It seems that the remarks by the Iranian traditional medicine on caring for newborn's umbilical cord can be useful for the prevention of different diseases.

PMID: 27840490 [PubMed - in process]

]]>
Mazdabadi NV, Razkenari EK, Saeedi M, Akbarzadeh T, Toushih M Iran J Med Sci PubMed:27840490

ایران، تهران، شهرک غرب،بلوار ایوانک، ساختمان وزارت بهداشت، بلوک آ، طبقه ششم، دفتر طب ایرانی